Urothelial carcinomas are the fifth leading cause of cancer (in Europe).1
Non-muscle-invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma (NMI-TCC) accounts for 70% of newly diagnosed cases. Bladder NM1-TCC with high grades or pT1 stages require close and active surveillance as there is significant risk of recurrence and progression to an invasive stage.1
The standard method for detection and surveillance of bladder cancer is cystoscopy in conjunction with urine cytology. Cystoscopy - the gold standard for bladder cancer detection/diagnosis, allows direct observation of the bladder. However, it does not allow for upper tract visualisation and does not always detect small areas of carcinoma in situ.
It is also invasive and uncomfortable for the patient. Not surprisingly, patient adherence is a major challenge in case management and prevention of disease progression. It is estimated that 40% of patients don’t follow the advice of their clinicians to attend regular cystoscopy appointments.2
Conversely, urine cytology, while non-invasive and highly specific, has poor sensitivity.
The prospect of an alternative, non-invasive test that relies on biomarkers in urine has been long awaited by urologists – and patients.3